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EU external actions have deep constitutional and institutional implications for EU law and practices. This becomes more and more relevant as the EU's external competences and actions continue to increase. Christina Eckes’ new book ‘EU Powers Under External Pressure - How the EU's External Actions Alter its Internal Structures’ (Oxford University Press, 2019) traces the legal effects and the broader constitutional implications of the EU’s external actions, including potential integrative forces.


This book sheds light on how the Union’s external actions influence the making and interpretation of EU law and, more importantly, whether and how this affects the power division between the EU and its Member States, the structures that shape the relationship between the Union and its citizens, as well as the autonomy, effectiveness, and legitimacy of EU law. To this end the book introduces the concept of ‘structure of bonding’, namely, the deep tissue of the Union, including the formal legal principles and rules that have the potential to frame and affect the Union’s relations with its citizens. It concludes that external relations offer great possibilities to the Union to make a comprehensible claim of purpose and added value compared to any Member State.


Table of Contents

Introduction: External Relations as a Constitutional Challenge
1: Conceptual Toolkit: Bonding Structures, Autonomy, Effectiveness and Legitimacy
2: EU Loyalty: Framing Legal Relationships
3: Organizational Principles Under External Pressure: Subsidiarity, Primacy, and Coherence
4: Consequence of Choosing a Legal Basis
5: Institutional Powers in External Relations
6: International Courts or Tribunals and the Autonomy of the EU Legal Order
Conclusion: Internal Structures under External Pressure


Further information

The book was published in 2019 by Oxford University Press. Read a longer description of the book on the publisher’s website.