prof. dr. C. (Christina) Eckes
Faculty of Law
Nieuwe Achtergracht 166
1000 BA Amsterdam
Christina Eckes is professor of European law at the University of Amsterdam and director of the Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance (ACELG).
Her research interests are integration and disintegration dynamics in EU law and the legal limits to European integration. This builds on her research on the internal constitutional consequences of the European Union's external actions, a comprehensive account of which was published as a monograph entitled EU Powers under External Pressure - How the EU's External Actions Alter its Internal Structures (Oxford University Press, 2019).
Previously, she published widely on EU restrictive measures (EU sanctions) and the constitutional considerations surrounding these measures, including a monograph entitled EU Counter-Terrorist Policies and Fundamental Rights - The Case of Individual Sanctions (Oxford University Press, 2009) which is the leading text on this topic. In 2011, Christina Eckes was awarded a personal research grant by the Dutch Scientific Organization (NWO) for her research project entitled: Outside-In: Tracing the Imprint of the European Union's External Actions on Its Constitutional Landscape. She spent the academic year 2012/2013 as Emile Noël Fellow-in-residence at New York University and March to June 2014 as a visiting researcher at the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin.
Christina Eckes joined the University of Amsterdam in September 2008. Previously, she completed her PhD research at the Centre of European Law at King's College London, which was fully funded by a university scholarship and worked as lecturer in EU law at the University of Surrey, UK (2007-2008). She also holds an LL.M (2003) from the College of Europe in Bruges, Belgium, and passed First State Examination in Germany (2002).
EU Counter-Terrorist Policies and Fundamental Rights: The Case of Individual Sanctions
see reviews: Luke A.R. Butler, European Law Review 2010, p. 739; Martin Scheinin, Yearbook of European Law 2010, p. 539; Cian Murphy, European Human Rights Law Review 2011, p. 120; Maria Tzanou, Common Market Law Review 2011, p. 2124; Iris Canor, Leiden Journal of International Law 2012, p. 243.
Crime within the Area of Freedom Security and Justice: A European Public Order
edited together with Theodore Konstadinides
see reviews: Elaine Fahey, Common Market Law Review 2011, p. 1737; Wanni Teo, Yearbook of European Law 2012, p. 1.
EU Powers under External Pressure
How the EU's External Actions Alter its Internal Structures
- EU institutional and constitutional law
- Integration and disintegration dynamics of EU law
- External relations of the European Union
- European human rights law
- Philosophical fundamentals of EU law
- Judicial review in a pluricontextual setting
- Restrictive measures against private individuals
- EU counter-terrorism
- Principles and Foundations of European Union Law (LL.M.)
- European Constitutional Law and Fundamental Rights (LL.M)
- Integration and Disintegration in EU law (LL.B)
- Europees Recht (LL.B)
Current PhD Researchers
- Or Brook, 'Coding non-competition interests under Article 101 TFEU: a quantitative and qualitative study' (will defend in May 2019)
- Dominique Barnhoorn, 'EU Liason Officers and Jurisdictional Gaps' (since 2017)
- Teresa Cabrita, 'The EU in the International Law Commission' (since 2017)
- Lara Talsma, 'The EU and womens rights and interests in conflict situations' (since 2018)
Past PhD Researchers
- Anniek de Ruijter, ‘A Silent Revolution: The Expansion of EU Power in the Field of Human Health: A rights-based analysis of EU health law and policy’ (2009-2015)
- Vigjilenca Abazi, ‘Secrecy and Oversight in the European Union: The Law and Practice of Classified Information’ (2011-2015)
- Kathalijne Buitenweg, ‘The Quest for Representative Autonomy by the European Parliament’ (2013-2016)
EU Powers Under External Pressure - How the EU's External Actions Alter its Internal Structures
EU external actions have deep constitutional and institutional implications for EU law and practice. The EU has become an ever more active in international relations. With the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, the EU’s competences in external relations have again further strengthened. As a result, the EU has become ever more active in external relations. This has in turn intensifies the internal constitutional and institutional effects of EU external actions.
This book traces these legal effects and the broader constitutional implications, including potential integrative forces. EU external actions affect the power division between the EU and its Member States and between the different EU institutions; the unity and autonomy of the EU legal order; the role and position of Member States on the international plane; their autonomy; the relationship between national, international and EU law; and the ability of EU citizens to identify who is responsible for a particular action or policy, as well as their legitimate expectation that the EU takes action on their behalf.
The different chapters demonstrate how the interpretation of organizational principles, such as sincere cooperation, subsidiarity, primacy and coherence, changes in the context of external relations; how the choice of an external legal basis rather than an internal legal basis affects the powers of the Union and its Member States; what power shifts happen when policies are determined in international agreements, rather than in internal decision-making; and how EU participation in international dispute settlement mechanisms affects the autonomy and legitimacy of the EU.
- refereed (33)
- academic (14)
- professional (7)
- popular scientific (5)
- recognitions (11)
- working papers / preprints (4)
- Eckes, C. (2019). EU Powers under External Pressure: How the EU’s External Actions Alter its Internal Structures. (Oxford Studies in European Law). Oxford University Press.
- Eckes, C. (2019). Integrated Rights Protection in the European and International Context: Some Reflections about Limits and Consequences. In S. Garben, & I. Govaere (Eds.), Interfaces between European and International Law (Modern Studies in European Law). Hart Publishing.
- Eckes, C. (Accepted/In press). Mutual Trust and the Future of Fundamental Rights Protection in the EU’s Compound Legal Order. In L. Azoulai, N. Bhuta, & M. Cremona (Eds.), Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law Oxford University Press.
- Abazi, V., & Eckes, C. (2018). Closed evidence in EU courts: Security, secrets and access to justice. Common Market Law Review, 55(3), 753–782. [details]
- Eckes, C. (2018). The Law and Practice of EU Sanctions. In S. Blockmans, & P. Koutrakos (Eds.), Research Handbook on the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (Research Handbooks in European Law). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
- Eckes, C., & Wessel, R. (2018). The European Union from an International Perspective: Sovereignty, Statehood, and Special Treatment. In T. Tridimas, & R. Schütze (Eds.), The Oxford Principles of European Union Law: The European Union Legal Order (Vol. 1). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Eckes, C. (2017). International Rulings and the EU Legal Order: Autonomy as Legitimacy? In M. Cremona, A. Thies, & R. A. Wessel (Eds.), The EU and Interntaional Dispute Settlement Hart Publishing.
- Eckes, C. (2014). EU counter-terrorist sanctions: the questionable success story of criminal law in disguise. In C. King, & C. Walker (Eds.), Dirty assets: emerging issues in the regulation of criminal and terrorist assets (pp. 317-336). (Law, justice and power). Farnham: Ashgate. [details]
- Eckes, C. (2014). EU restrictive measures against natural and legal persons: from counterterrorist to third country sanctions. Common Market Law Review, 51(3), 869-905. [details]
- Eckes, C. (2014). External relations law: how the outside shapes the inside. In D. Acosta Arcarazo, & C. C. Murphy (Eds.), EU security and justice law: after Lisbon and Stockholm (pp. 186-206). (Modern studies in European law; No. 42). Oxford [etc.]: Hart Publishing. DOI: 10.5040/9781474201179.ch-011 [details]
- Eckes, C. (2014). How the European Parliament's participation in international relations affects the deep tissue of the EU's power structures. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 12(4), 904-929. DOI: 10.1093/icon/mou067 [details]
- Eckes, C. (2014). The Court of Justice's participation in judicial discourse: theory and practice. In M. Cremona, & A. Thies (Eds.), The European Court of Justice and external relations law: constitutional challenges (pp. 183-210). (Modern studies in European law). Oxford: Hart Publishing. [details]
- Eckes, C. (2013). EU Accession to the ECHR: Between Autonomy and Adaptation. The Modern Law Review, 76(2), 254-285. DOI: 10.1111/1468-2230.12012 [details]
- Eckes, C. (2013). EU Anti-Terrorismus-Sanktionen als Extrembeispiel kooperativer Regelsetzung. Zeitschrift für Aussen- und Sicherheitspolitik, 6(3), 345-356. DOI: 10.1007/s12399-013-0342-3 [details]
- Eckes, C. (2013). EU climate change policy: can the Union be just (and) green? In D. Kochenov, & F. Amtenbrink (Eds.), The European Union's shaping of the international legal order (pp. 191-214). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139519625.012 [details]
- Eckes, C. (2013). Epilogue: The Union, the world and counter-terrorism: how to normalize the extreme? In L. C. Ferreira‐Pereira, & B. Oliveira Martins (Eds.), The European Union's fight against terrorism: the CFSP and beyond London: Routledge. [details]
- Eckes, C. (2013). Individuals in a pluralist world: The implications of counterterrorist sanctions. Global Constitutionalism, 2(2), 218-236. DOI: 10.1017/S2045381713000063 [details]
- Eckes, C., & Hollenberg, S. (2013). Reconciling different legal spheres in theory and practice: pluralism and constitutionalism in the cases of Al Jedda, Ahmed and Nada. Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, 20(2), 220-243. [details]
- Eckes, C. (2012). EU counter-terrorist sanctions against individuals: problems and perils. European Foreign Affairs Review, 17(1), 113-132. [details]
- Eckes, C. (2012). Environmental Policy 'Outside-In': How the EU's Engagement with International Environmental Law Curtails National Autonomy. German law journal: review of developments in German, European and international jurisprudence, 13(11), 1151-1175. [details]
- Eckes, C. (2012). Protecting supremacy from external influences: a precondition for a European constitutional legal order? European Law Journal, 18(2), 230-250. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0386.2011.00595.x [details]
- Eckes, C., Fahey, E., & Kanetake, M. (2012). International, European and U.S. perspectives on the negotiation and adoption of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA). Currents, 20(2), 20-44. [details]
- Eckes, C. (2011). Controlling the most dangerous branch from afar: multilayered counter-terrorist policies and the European judiciary. European Journal of Risk Regulation, 2(4), 505-522. DOI: 10.1017/S1867299X00006589 [details]
- Eckes, C. (2011). The legal framework of the European Union's counter-terrorist policies: full of good intentions? In C. Eckes, & T. Konstadinides (Eds.), Crime within the area of freedom, security and justice: a European public order (pp. 127-158). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [details]
- Eckes, C., & Mendes, J. (2011). The right to be heard in composite administrative procedures: lost in between protection? European Law Review, 36(5), 651-670. [details]
- Eckes, C. (2009). EU counter-terrorist policies and fundamental rights: the case of individual sanctions. (Oxford studies in European law). Oxford: Oxford University Press. [details]
- Eckes, C. (2009). Test case for the resilience of the EU's constitutional foundations. European Public Law, 15(3), 351-378. [details]
- Curtin, D., & Eckes, C. (2008). The Kadi case: mapping the boundaries between the executive and the judiciary in Europe. International Organizations Law Review, 5(2), 365-369. DOI: 10.1163/157237408X412961 [details]
- Eckes, C. (2008). Judicial review of European anti-terrorism measures - The Yusuf and Kadi judgments of the Court of First Instance. European Law Journal, 14(1), 74-92. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0386.2007.00402.x
- Eckes, C. (2008). Sanctions against individuals: fighting terrorism within the European legal order. European Constitutional Law Review, 4(2), 205-224. DOI: 10.1017/S1574019608002058 [details]
- Abazi, V. (Author), & Eckes, C. (Author). (2018). EU Closed Evidence by Stealth: Testing the Limits of Access to Justice and European Judicial Cooperation. Web publication/site, EU Law Analysis.Retrieved from http://eulawanalysis.blogspot.com/2018/08/eu-closed-evidence-by-stealth-testing.html [details]
- Weimer, M., Cseres, K., & Eckes, C. (Eds.) (2017). The Rule of Law in the Technological Age : Challenges and Opportunities for the EU: collected papers ACELG 6th Annual Conference, 4 November 2016. (Amsterdam Law School Legal Studies Research Paper; No. 2017-35), (Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance Research Paper; No. 2017-02). Amsterdam: Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3005914 [details]
- Curtin, D. M., & Eckes, C. (2016). Secrecy Inside and Outside: EU External Relations in Focus. (SIEPS reports). SIEPS - Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies.
- Eckes, C. (Author). (2014). [book review] EU accession to the ECHR: Ante portas or a mirage on the horizon?. Web publication/site, I-CONnect: blog of the International Journal of Constitutional Law and ConstitutionMaking.org.Retrieved from http://www.iconnectblog.com/2014/11/eu-accession-to-the-echr-ante-portas-or-a-mirage-on-the-horizon/ [details]
- Eckes, C. (Author). (2014). EU sanctions against Russia - Halfhearted or best response?. Web publication/site, Verfassungsblog.Retrieved from http://verfassungsblog.de/en/eu-sanctions-against-russia-halfhearted-or-best-response/ [details]
- Blockmans, S., Hillion, C., Cremona, M., Curtin, D., De Baere, G., Duke, S., ... Wouters, J. (2013). EEAS 2.0: A legal commentary on Council Decision 2010/427/EU establishing the organisation and functioning of the European External Action Service. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies. [details]
- Blockmans, S., Hillion, C., Cremona, M., Curtin, D., De Baere, G., Duke, S., ... Wouters, J. (2013). EEAS 2.0: Recommendations for the amendment of Council Decision 2010/427/EU establishing the organisation and functioning of the European External Action Service. (CEPS special reports; No. 78). Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies. [details]
- Eckes, C. (2013). Decision-making in the dark? Autonomous EU sanctions and national classification. In I. Cameron (Ed.), EU sanctions: law and policy issues concerning restrictive measures (pp. 177-198). (Supranational criminal law; No. 15). Cambridge [etc.]: Intersentia. [details]
- Eckes, C. (2013). European Union Legal Methods - Moving Away From Integration. In U. Neergaard, & R. Nielsen (Eds.), European legal method: towards a new European legal realism? (pp. 163-188). Copenhagen: DJØF Publishing. [details]
- Eckes, C. (2013). The European Court of Justice and (quasi-)judicial bodies of international organisations. In R. A. Wessel, & S. Blockmans (Eds.), Between autonomy and dependence: the EU legal order under the influence of international organisations (pp. 85-109). The Hague: Asser Press. DOI: 10.1007/978-90-6704-903-0_5 [details]
- Eckes, C. (2013). The role of judges confronted with norms form different origines: the case of counter-terrorist sanctions. In K. E. Jørgensen, & K. V. Laatikainen (Eds.), Routledge handbook on the Europan Union and international institutions: performance, policy, power (pp. 171-184). (Routledge handbooks). London [etc.]: Routledge. [details]
- Eckes, C. (2011). International law as law of the EU: the role of the ECJ. In E. Cannizzaro, P. Palchetti, & R. A. Wessel (Eds.), International law as law of the European Union (pp. 353-377). (Studies in EU external relations; No. 5). Leiden: Nijhoff. [details]
- Eckes, C., & Konstadinides, T. (2011). Crime within the area of freedom, security and justice: a European public order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [details]
- Eckes, C. (2008). Trapped between courts or How terrorist suspects lost their right to a remedy. In A. Follesdal, R. A. Wessel, & J. Wouters (Eds.), Multilevel Regulation and the EU: the interplay between global, European, and national normative processes (pp. 261-300). Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. DOI: 10.1163/ej.9789004164383.i-426.68
- Eckes, C. (2017). Research paper on the Cost of Non-Europe in the Area of Procedural Rights and Detention Conditions. Directorate General for Parliamentary Research Services.
- Eckes, C. (2017). Research paper on the Cost of Non-Europe in the Fight Against Terrorism. Directorate General for Parliamentary Research Services.
- Eckes, C. (Author). (2016). The EU has a Lot to Learn from Brexit. Web publication/site, Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance, University of Amsterdam.Retrieved from http://acelg.blogactiv.eu/2016/06/29/the-eu-has-a-lot-to-learn-from-brexit/
- Eckes, C. (Author). (2016). Regardless of a leave or stay vote the EU has tougher questions to address than Brexit. Web publication/site, Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance, University of Amsterdam.Retrieved from http://acelg.blogactiv.eu/2016/06/22/regardless-of-a-leave-or-stay-vote-the-eu-has-tougher-questions-to-address-than-brexit/
- Eckes, C., (2013). Case note: CJEU (case C-239/12 P: Abdulrahim v. Council and Commission), No. 159, May 28, 2013. (EHRC. European Human Right Cases; Vol. 2013, No. 8). [details]
- Eckes, C., (2010). Case note: CJEU (Case C-188/07: Commune de Mesquer v. Total France and Total International Ltd.), Jun 24, 2008. (Common Market Law Review; Vol. 2010, No. 3). [details]
- Eckes, C. (2009). [Review of: C. Barnard, O. Odudu (2009) The outer limits of European union law]. European Law Review, 34(5), 794-796. [details]
- Eckes, C. (Author). (2014). The German Federal Constitutional Court As Part of a New European Judicial Network?. Web publication/site, BlogActiv.Retrieved from http://acelg.blogactiv.eu/2014/02/14/the-german-federal-constitutional-court-as-part-of-a-new-european-judicial-network/
- Eckes, C. (Author). (2013). To Rule or Not to Rule? Should the German Constitutional Court Have the Last Word in the Eurocrisis?. Web publication/site, BlogActiv.Retrieved from http://acelg.blogactiv.eu/2013/06/18/to-rule-or-not-to-rule-should-the-german-constitutional-court-have-the-last-word-in-the-eurocrisis/
- Eckes, C. (Author). (2013). One Step Closer: EU Accession to the ECHR. Web publication/site, UK Constitutional Law Blog.Retrieved from http://ukconstitutionallaw.org/2013/05/02/christina-eckes-one-step-closer-eu-accession-to-the-echr/
- Eckes, C. (Author). (2013). Italian Elections and the European Union: Till Politics Do Us Part. Web publication/site, BlogActiv.Retrieved from http://acelg.blogactiv.eu/2013/03/01/italian-elections-and-the-european-union-till-politics-do-us-part/
- Eckes, C. (Author). (2012). Doha climate change conference: The question is no longer whether climate change is real. The question is how to mitigate it …. Web publication/site, BlogActiv.Retrieved from http://acelg.blogactiv.eu/2012/12/17/doha-climate-change-conference-the-question-is-no-longer-whether-climate-change-is-real-the-question-is-how-to-mitigate-it-%E2%80%A6/
- Eckes, C. (27-10-2018). De Urgenda uitspraak doet júíst recht aan het EVRM [Web] EU Explainer. De Urgenda uitspraak doet júíst recht aan het EVRM.
- Eckes, C. (editor), Eeckhout, P. (editor) & Thies, A. (editor) (2016). Europe and the World: A Law Review (Journal).
Talk / presentation
- Eckes, C. (speaker) (25-11-2016). Sincere Cooperation in the EU at 27: Who should be loyal to what?, 21st IUS Commune Conngres 2016.
- Eckes, C. (speaker) (23-11-2016). Herbezinning op de EU na de Brexit, Alumnimiddag FdR.
- Eckes, C. (speaker) (9-11-2016). Brexit: What would be the implications for the Protection of Fundamental Rights?, Toogdag - Onderzoeksschool Rechten van de Mens.
- Eckes, C. (speaker) (19-10-2016). The EU at 27: Facilitating Democracy through Loyalty?, The Gandhi Research Seminar Series.
- Eckes, C. (speaker) (18-6-2016). Brexit - Where will it leave us?, Congres Jonge Democraten.
- Eckes, C. (speaker) (27-5-2016). Non-State Actors through the Lens of EU Law, A State-Centric International Legal System? , Maastricht, Netherlands.
- Eckes, C. (speaker) (28-4-2016). Law and Practice of EU Sanctions, CFSP/CSDP Workshop.
- Eckes, C. (participant) (2016). Committee member 'Onderzoekstalent 2016' (other).
- Weimer, M. (participant), Cseres, K. J. (participant) & Eckes, C. (participant) (4-11-2016). The Rule of Law in the Technological Age. 6th Annual Conference of the Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance (organising a conference, workshop, ...).
- Eckes, C. (2017). Integrated Rights Protection in the European and International Context: Some Reflections about Limits and Consequences. (Amsterdam Law School Legal Studies Research Paper; No. 2017-40), (Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance Research Paper ; No. 2017-03). Amsterdam: Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance, University of Amsterdam. [details]
- Eckes, C. (2016). International Rulings and the EU Legal Order: Autonomy as Legitimacy? (CLEER papers; No. 2016/2). The Hague: Centre for the Law of EU External Relations. [details]
- Eckes, C. (2016). Protecting Fundamental Rights in the EU’s Compound Legal Order: Mutual Trust against Better Judgment? (ACELG Working Paper Series; No. 2016-06). Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance, University of Amsterdam.
- Schrauwen, A. A. M., Eckes, C., Weimer, M., Durieux, J-F., Mantu, S., Minderhoud, P., ... Zeitlin, J. H. (2016). Inclusion and Exclusion in the European Union - Collected Papers. (ACELG Working Paper Series; Vol. 2016, No. 05). Amsterdam Centre for European Law and Governance, University of Amsterdam.
- No ancillary activities